MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play a crucial role in development and many diseases. The discovery of miRNAs has greatly expanded our understanding of the intricate scenario of genome-wide regulation. Over the last two decades, hundreds of virus-encoded miRNAs have been identified, most of which are from DNA viruses. Although the number of reported RNA virus-derived miRNAs is increasing, current knowledge of their roles in physiological and pathological processes has remained lacking. In this review, we discuss the biogenesis and biological functions of RNA virus- encoded miRNAs and their proposed roles in virus-host interactions and further underscore their potential value in the diagnosis and treatment of viral diseases.