Associations between previous joint replacement and B-cell lymphoid malignancies have been reported, but despite numerous reports, associations with the disease subtypes have received little attention. Using a UK-based register of haematological malignancies and a matched general population-based cohort, joint replacements from linked hospital inpatient records were examined. Cases diagnosed 2009-2015 who were aged 50 years or more were included; 8,013 mature B-cell neoplasms comprising myeloma (n = 1,763), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, n = 1,676), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, n = 1,594), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL, n = 957), follicular lymphoma (FL, n = 725) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL, n = 255), together with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS, n = 2,138) and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL, n = 632). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated relative to 10 age- and sex-matched controls using conditional logistic regression. Having had a joint replacement before diagnosis was associated with myeloma (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, p = 0.008) and MGUS (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, p < 0.001). Excluding replacements in the year before diagnosis, the MGUS risk remained, elevated where two or more joints were replaced (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0, p = 0.001), with hip (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5, p = 0.06) or knee replacements (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.8, p < 0.001). Associations with CHL and two or more replacements (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.6, p = 0.005) or hip replacements (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.4, p = 0.04); and between DLBCL and knee replacements (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6, p = 0.04) were also observed. Our study reports for the first time a relationship between joint replacements and MGUS; while absolute risks of disease are low and not of major public health concern, these findings warrant further investigation. © 2019 The Authors. International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.