Risk factors and some protective factors for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women were assessed in a case control study. Use of intrauterine device (OR = 3.98, p < 0.0001), sexual activity with multiple partners and younger age (ORs = 3.97, 1.9 and p = 0.0003, 0.0034, respectively), history of previous PID (OR = 4.08, p = 0.004) and history of minor gynecologic operation (OR = 3.07, p = 0.0158) were significant risk factors for PID. Pregnancy was a significant protective factor (OR = 0.25, p = .0074). Sterilisation had a significant protective effect (OR = 0.37, p = 0.0443) on multivariate analysis but not significant on univariate analysis. The results indicated that, almost half of the PID load on the population can be reduced by proper handling of four risk factors namely, use of IUD, sexual activity with multiple partners, history of previous PID and history of minor gynecologic operation (PARP = 0.2146, 0.1101, 0.0824 and 0.0794, respectively).