The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Asian population. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 37 245 Taiwanese women who delivered between July 1990 and December 2003. Pregnancies complicated by placenta previa, multiple gestation, and fetal anomalies were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for potentially confounding variables and to identify independent risk factors for placental abruption. Three hundred thirty-two women had placental abruption (9 per 1000 singleton deliveries). Women who smoked during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0-23.9), had gestational hypertensive diseases (adjusted OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.3-7.3), pregnancies complicated by oligohydramnios (adjusted OR = 4.2; 95% CI = 2.7-6.7), polyhydramnios (adjusted OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.4-7.7), preterm premature rupture of membranes (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1-3.1), entanglement of umbilical cord (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2-2.1), were of or more than 35 years of age (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.0), and had a low prepregnancy body mass index (adjusted OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.6) were at increased risk for placental abruption. Some risk factors for placental abruption among Taiwanese women are the same as those of other ethnic groups, whereas some of the risk factors are different.