Background: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, particularly in low and middle income countries, where treatment and control are often unavailable and inaccessible. Information on risk factors at local and regional levels is of utmost importance for tailored prevention programmes to curb the rise in diabetes. The current study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG)/Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and its risk factors in the adult population in Biyem-Assi-Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: Information on cardiovascular risk factors using the WHO STEPwise approach was obtained for 1623 men and women aged 25 years and older of the CAMBoD Project in Biyem-Assi, Yaounde, Cameroon. T2D was defined as fasting capillary glucose (FCG) >= 7.0 mmol/l and/or being on diabetes medication, IFG/T2D as FCG >= 6.1 mmol/l and/or being on diabetes medication. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to describe prevalence of IFG/T2D, prevalence of risk factors for IFG/T2D and to investigate the association of risk factors with prevalence of IFG/T2D. Results: Prevalence of T2D and of IFG/T2D was 3.3% and 5.7%. Prevalence of hypertension, obesity and abdominal obesity (elevated waist circumference) was 26.6%, 28.4% and 34.9%, respectively. Age and abdominal obesity were significantly associated with IFG/T2D in multivariate logistic regression. Conclusion: For successful primary prevention of T2D in the general population in Cameroon tailored efforts to address obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, and associated life-style factors are warranted.