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Risk factors associated with third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations in singleton vaginal deliveries: a comprehensive United States population analysis 2016–2020

Authors
  • Gobioff, Samantha
  • Lenchner, Erez
  • Gulersen, Moti
  • Bar-El, Liron
  • Grünebaum, Amos
  • Chervenak, Frank A.
  • Bornstein, Eran
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Publisher
Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2023
Volume
51
Issue
8
Pages
1006–1012
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2023-0127
PMID: 37261912
Source
De Gruyter
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Objectives Perineal lacerations are a common complication of vaginal birth, affecting approximately 85 % of patients. Third-and fourth-degree perineal lacerations (3/4PL) remain a significant cause of physical and emotional distress. We aimed to perform an extensive assessment of potential risk factors for 3/4PL based on a comprehensive and current US population database. Methods Retrospective population-based cohort analysis based on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Natality Live Birth online database between 2016–2020. Baseline characteristics were compared between women with 3/4PL and without 3/4PL by using Pearson’s Chi-squared test with statistical significance set at p<0.05. Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple comparisons. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between a variety of potential risk factors and the risk of 3/4P. Results Asians/Pacific Islanders had the highest risk of 3/4PL (2.6 %, aOR 1.74). Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia were associated with increased risk of 3/4PL (aOR 1.28 and 1.34, respectively), as were both pre-gestational and gestational diabetes (aOR 1.28 and 1.46, respectively). Chorioamnionitis was associated almost double the risk (aOR 1.86). Birth weight was a major risk factor (aOR 7.42 for greater than 4,000 g), as was nulliparity (aOR 9.89). Conclusions We identified several maternal, fetal, and pregnancy conditions that are associated with an increased risk for 3/4PL. As expected, nulliparity and increased birth weight were associated with the highest risk. Moreover, pregestational and gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, Asian/Pacific Islander race, and chorioamnionitis were identified as novel risk factors.

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