SummaryLumbar BMD and functional recovery in the acute period were independently strongly associated with subsequent new VCF after hospital conservative therapy for patients with new fragility VCFs. Functional recovery was related with age, pain intensity during first month after hospitalization, VCF past history and multiple new VCFs.PurposeThis study aimed to determine the factors independently associated with the subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) after hospital conservative therapy in patients with new fragility VCFs and parameters related with functional recovery in the acute period.MethodsSubsequent VCF (n = 37) was defined as patients who sustained a new VCF within 9 months after new VCF, whereas patients without a new VCF were classified as non-subsequent VCF (n = 179). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent factors associated with the subsequent VCF, including patients’ characteristics, past histories, number of new VCFs, bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar sagittal alignment, fractured vertebral body height, spine muscle mass, pain intensity, corset types, medications for osteoporosis and pain relief, recovery ratio of functional independence measure (FIM) and bone union. Correlation coefficients were accessed between the FIM recovery ratio and continuous variable parameters, while intergroup comparisons or analysis of variance was conducted to examine significant differences in the FIM recovery ratio for categorical variable parameters.ResultsLumbar BMD, FIM recovery ratio at the first month after hospitalization and segmental Cobb angle were significantly independently associated with subsequent VCF (odds ratio: 27.8, 9.6 and 1.1, respectively). The FIM recovery ratio was moderately negatively correlated with age and pain intensity and was significantly worse in patients with multiple new VCFs or past history of VCF.ConclusionsConservative therapies focused on lumbar BMD, functional recovery and pain relief in the acute period may be useful in preventing subsequent VCF.