Ubiquitination plays an important role in the DNA damage response. We identified a novel interaction of the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF8 with Nbs1, a key regulator of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. We found that Nbs1 is ubiquitinated both before and after DNA damage and is a direct ubiquitination substrate of RNF8. We also identified key residues on Nbs1 that are ubiquitinated by RNF8. By using laser microirradiation and live-cell imaging, we observed that RNF8 and its ubiquitination activity are important for promoting optimal binding of Nbs1 to DSB-containing chromatin. We also demonstrated that RNF8-mediated ubiquitination of Nbs1 contributes to the efficient and stable binding of Nbs1 to DSBs and is important for HR-mediated DSB repair. Taken together, these studies suggest that Nbs1 is one important target of RNF8 to regulate DNA DSB repair.