Rifampin has a broad antibacterial spectrum. At high concentrations it also is active in vitro against protozoa, i.e., different species of Leishmania. Rifampin has been used against bacterial and occasionally protozoal infections. Addition of rifampin to a tetracycline regimen was found to reduce the number of relapses in patients with acute and chronic brucellosis. In a few cases of meningitis due to Flavobacterium meningosepticum, which failed to respond to other drugs, patients were treated successfully with rifampin administered either orally or intravenously. Rifampin at doses of greater than or equal to 600 mg daily has been administered to patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Healing of skin lesions was observed in the majority of treated patients. Controlled studies are needed to assess the usefulness of rifampin in this disease.