Ribonucleic acid (RNA) species from aerobically and anaerobically grown Rhodopseudomonas spheroides were compared via hybridization to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Both long-labeled and stable RNA bound to chromosomal DNA to the same extent, regardless of derivation. About 4% of the chromosomal DNA hybridized with total cell RNA and about 0.08% with stable RNA. About 4% of the mixed satellite DNA could be hybridized to total cell RNA from aerobic or anaerobic cultures, whereas essentially no stable RNA formed a hybrid with this DNA. Hybridization competition experiments with aerobic and anaerobic pulse-labeled RNA and chromosomal or satellite DNA demonstrated that no qualitative differences existed between the RNA species. It is concluded that identical species of RNA in the same relative amounts are synthesized by R. spheroides during aerobic or anaerobic growth on the same medium.