Rhodococcus erythropolis rarely causes infection in humans. We report the second case of R. erythropolis septicaemia in a 7-year-old child. However, to our knowledge it is the first case in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukaemia who had been undergoing chemotherapy. The identification was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Even though R. erythropolis is rarely associated with human infections, it should be considered as a potential causative agent of bacteraemia, rather than overlooked as a contaminant.