Modified microspheres (SiO2-M) were obtained by the hydrolytic modification of silicon dioxide (SiO2) microspheres with Na2SiO3, and then, SiO2-M was used as a carrier to prepare a composite photocatalyst (SiO2-M/TiO2) using the sol-gel method; i.e., nano-TiO2 was loaded on the surface of SiO2-M. The structure, morphology, and photocatalytic properties of SiO2-M/TiO2 were investigated. Besides, the mechanism of the effect of SiO2-M was also explored. The results show that the hydrolytic modification of Na2SiO3 coated the surface of SiO2 microspheres with an amorphous SiO2 shell layer and increased the quantity of hydroxyl groups. The photocatalytic performance of the composite photocatalyst was slightly better than that of pure nano-TiO2 and significantly better than that of the composite photocatalyst supported by unmodified SiO2. Thus, increasing the loading capacity of nano-TiO2, improving the dispersion of TiO2, and increasing the active surface sites are essential factors for improving the functional efficiency of nano-TiO2. This work provides a new concept for the design of composite photocatalysts by optimizing the performance of the carrier.