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Revisiting nature: a review of iridoids as a potential antileishmanial class

Authors
  • Arraché Gonçalves, Guilherme1
  • Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia1
  • von Poser, Gilsane Lino1
  • 1 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,
Type
Published Article
Journal
Phytochemistry Reviews
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Mar 16, 2021
Pages
1–26
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11101-021-09750-8
PMID: 33746658
PMCID: PMC7960493
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Article
License
Unknown

Abstract

Leishmaniasis still stands as one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases in the least developed and emerging countries. The recommended therapeutic arsenal to treat leishmaniasis is characterized by several shortcomings, and resistance has already been reported. Hence, this dramatic background highlights the pressing need to develop novel, affordable, and safe antileishmanial drugs. Multiple classes of natural compounds have been reported to possess antileishmanial activity. Among these classes, iridoids stand out as a special type of monoterpenoids with diverse biological properties—including their antileishmanial potential. This review aims to discuss the available literature between 1991 and 2020 related to the antileishmanial activity of the iridoid class. Throughout the past decades, various investigations attributed antileishmanial action to assorted iridoid types, including inhibitory potential towards validated drug targets and immunomodulatory activity. The latter deserves special attention due to the ability of some iridoids to improve the host’s immune response against parasites. It opens the possibility of iridoids become adjuncts in leishmaniasis treatments by improving the efficacy of currently employed drugs. Furthermore, the present study intends to provide a convenient visual representation of which iridoids and Leishmania spp. species have been most investigated as a guide for further researches.

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