This article is written to introduce the main contents of the revised National Guidelines for Care and Education at Day Nursery (henceforth New Guidelines), which were recently announced by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), and the challenges associated with these New Guidelines. The National Guidelines for Care and Education at Day Nursery is the national curriculum for Japan’s day nurseries, an official educational institution for preschools and kindergartens under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MECST). The New Guidelines are the fourth revised edition of such a curriculum. Unlike the previously issued guidelines, the New Guidelines, which were publicly announced by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare, are legally binding as a minimum standard for child care and education. This article is focused on introducing (a) roles of day nurseries, (b) child care and education, (c) promotion of food education, (d) plans and evaluations of child care and education, and (e) transition from preschool to elementary school. Some additional points worthy of consideration, such as minimum standards for day nurseries, plans and self-evaluation of child care and education, problems of child care and education plans, and parental involvement are also included in this article. It is recommended the New Guidelines not be regarded as being faultless. Rather, positive efforts should be made based on the practices and studies of child care and education to improve the Guidelines in accordance with social trends.