Phytomyxea (phytomyxids) is a group of obligate biotrophic pathogens belonging to the Rhizaria. Some phytomyxids are well studied and include known plant pathogens such as Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease. Despite this economic importance, the taxonomy and biodiversity of this group are largely cryptic, with many species described in the premolecular area. Some of these species were key for establishing the morphotaxonomic concepts that define most genera to this day, but systematic efforts to include and integrate those species into molecular studies are still lacking. The aim of this study was to expand our understanding of phytomyxid biodiversity in terrestrial environments. Thirty-eight environmental samples from habitats in which novel and known diversity of Phytomyxea was expected were analysed. We were able to generate 18S rRNA sequences from Ligniera verrucosa, a species which is well defined based on ultrastructure. Phylogenetic analyses of the collected sequences rendered the genera Lignera, Plasmodiophora and Spongospora polyphyletic, and identified two novel and apparently diverse lineages (clade 17, clade 18). Based on these findings and on data from previous studies, we formally establish the new genera Pseudoligniera n. gen. for L. verrucosa,Hillenburgia n. gen. for Spongospora nasturtii and revert Plasmodiophora diplantherae to its original name Ostenfeldiella diplantherae. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.