Quercus Infectoria galls (QIG) have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Uyghur medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, hemorrhage, skin disease, and many other human ailments. Medicinal applications of QIG have become increasingly popular in Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, and Iran. The present paper reviewed the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, analytical methods, biological activities, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and drug interactions of QIG to assess the ethnopharmacological uses, explore its therapeutic potential, and identify future opportunities for research. Information on QIG was gathered via the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Pubmed, Web of Science, CNKI, and EMBASE) and libraries. Additionally, information was also obtained from local books and PhD and MS dissertations. QIG has played an important role in traditional Chinese medicine. The main bioactive metabolites of QIG include tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and steroids. Scientific studies on the QIG extract and its components have shown its wide range of pharmacological activities, such as cholinesterase- and monoamine oxidase-inhibitory, antitumor, anti-hypertension, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antiparasitic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. The ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, pharmacological, and analytical methods of QIG were highlighted in this review, which provides information for future studies and commercial exploration. QIG has a huge potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications. Moreover, comprehensive toxicity studies of this plant must be conducted to ensure its safety. Additional investigations are recommended to transmute the ethnopharmacological claims of this plant in folklore medicines into scientific rationale-based information. Research on pharmacokinetics studies and potential drug interactions with standard-of-care medications is still limited, which calls for additional studies particularly on humans. Further assessments and clinical trials should be performed before it can be integrated into medicinal practices. Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.