Peptides exhibit unique binding behavior with graphene and its derivatives by forming bonds on its edges and planes. This makes them useful for sensing and imaging applications. This review with (155 refs.) summarizes the advances made in the last decade in the field of peptide-GO bioconjugation, and the use of these conjugates in analytical sciences and imaging. The introduction emphasizes the need for understanding the biotic-abiotic interactions in order to construct controllable peptide-functionalized graphitic material-based nanotools. The next section covers covalent and non-covalent interactions between peptide and oxidized graphene derivatives along with a discussion of the adsorption events during interfacing. We then describe applications of peptide-graphene conjugates in bioassays, with subsections on (a) detection of cancer cells, (b) monitoring protease activity, (c) determination of environmental pollutants and (d) determination of pathogenic microorganisms. The concluding section describes the current status of peptide functionalized graphitic bioconjugates and addresses future perspectives. Graphical abstractSchematic representation depicting biosensing applications of peptide functionalized graphene oxide.