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A Review of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) in Disease: Potential Anti-NETs Therapeutics.

Authors
  • Mutua, Victoria1
  • Gershwin, Laurel J2
  • 1 Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA, USA. [email protected]
  • 2 Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Aug 01, 2020
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s12016-020-08804-7
PMID: 32740860
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Activated neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to a variety of stimuli. NETosis is driven by protein-arginine deiminase type 4, with the release of intracellular granule components that function by capturing and destroying microbes, including viral, fungal, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens. The positive effects of pathogen control are countered by pro-inflammatory effects as demonstrated in a variety of diseases. Components of NETS are non-specific, and other than controlling microbes, they cause injury to surrounding tissue by themselves or by increasing the pro-inflammatory response. NETs can play a role in enhancement of the inflammation seen in autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosis. In addition, autoinflammatory diseases such as gout have been associated with NETosis. Inhibition of NETs may decrease the severity of many diseases improving survival. Herein, we describe NETosis in different diseases focusing on the detrimental effect of NETs and outline possible therapeutics that can be used to mitigate netosis. There is a need for more studies and clinical trials on these and other compounds that could prevent or destroy NETs, thereby decreasing damage to patients.

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