Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is an important pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. As a type of self-limited disease, most MP infections cause mild clinical symptoms, but they can also lead to severe pneumonia or extrapulmonary complications. The resistance rate of MP has increased in recent years. Early and rapid diagnosis of MP infection is important for the treatment and prognosis of the disease. Current methods for diagnosing MP infection include isolation culture, serological diagnosis, and molecular biological diagnosis. This review summarizes the recent research progress in the internal and external laboratory diagnoses of MP infection both at home and abroad and the advantages and disadvantages of various diagnostic methods.