In the history of modern science, nanotechnology accomplished the most attraction by the researchers as nanomaterials exhibit novel and significantly improved properties in term of physical, chemical, and biological properties and they can be modified accordingly. These are mainly because there is an increase in surface area as compared to volume as particles get smaller. Electrospinning is one of the most suitable method for producing continuous nanomaterials with varying physical, chemical and biological properties. In this review paper we discussed the theory and the experimental setup of electrospinning along with the history of this process. We also review on the effect of parameters (solution, processing and ambient) on the fiber morphology and the potential applications of electrospun nanofibers. This is followed by geometrical, chemical, physical and mechanical characterization procedure of electrospun nanofiber.