Integrating heat exchanger pipes with structural foundations in one system has created a new renewable solution for buildings’ thermal loads. However, the interaction between thermal and geotechnical loads makes their design more complex and challenging. This review-study represents the current state of knowledge about the thermal and thermo-mechanical behaviors of energy piles. It also investigates the key parameters that affect their design concerning the piles’ dimensions, the arrangement of pipes, concrete admixture, and fluid characteristics. It is found that the thermal efficiency improves significantly by increasing the number of pipes inside the piles and by adding thermally conductive materials to the concrete within acceptable limits. Besides, this paper reviews most of the studies conducted on optimizing vertical ground heat exchangers coupled with heat pumps. Objective functions, decision variables, design constraints, and optimization methods are specified and listed. It is concluded that a multi-objective optimization is highly recommended to enhance the dual performance of an energy pile system coupled with a heat pump using the 4E evaluation criteria (energy, exergy, economy, and environment) while ensuring the safety of the foundation under thermal cyclic loads.