Ca2+ accumulation in energized rat liver mitochondria has been studied after the blockage of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) by cyclosporin A. It is shown that Ca2+ transport is coupled to the countertransport of protons: from the matrix of mitochondria in the medium in the course of Ca2+ accumulation, and, on the contrary, from the medium to mitochondrial matrix after membrane depolarization. In standard incubation medium containing K+, Cl-, oxidation substrate (glutamate) and inorganic phosphate (H2PO4(-)) the observed stoichiometry of the exchange is 1Ca2+ : 1H+. In accordance with this exchange ratio, proton, as well as cation, transport follows the same first-order kinetics, which is characterized in both cases by very close values of reaction half-times and rate constants. It is shown that reversion of Ca2+ -uniporter, sensitive to ruthenium red, is necessary for Ca2+ - efflux from the matrix ofdeenergized mitochondria when MPTP is blocked by cyclosporin A. It is also shown that Ca2+ -uniporter reversion takes place only after membrane depolarization and permeabilization by protonophore CCCP. Calcium release from mitochondria in the presence of CCCP is accompanied by proton flow into the matrix. Both calcium and proton fluxes are sensitive to Ca2+ uniporter blocker, ruthenium red, which gives the evidence of the identity of Ca2+ -efflux and influx pathways. The data obtained lead to the conclusion that calcium-proton exchange is necessary for Ca2+ -uniporter reversion and the reversibility of energy-dependent Ca2+ -uptake in mitochondria.