Sixteen Black children were examined 5 years after hospitalization for pneumonia. Sixty-three per cent had had recurrent symptoms since that time. Of this group 60% had physical signs present although they were reportedly symptom-free at the time of examination. A family history of asthma was common in the symptom-free group and in the group with intermittent symptoms, but in only 1 child could a minor degree of exercise-induced bronchospasm be produced. Airway obstruction was detected in 19% of the children using peak expiratory flow rate measurements. Only 1 child had a completely normal chest radiograph at the follow-up examination. In this retrospective study long-term sequelae of pneumonia in early childhood were common and should be considered in the assessment of children with recurrent symptoms and signs and/or persistent radiographic changes.