Aortoiliac occlusive disease is a frequently encountered occlusive arterial disease. Different surgical approaches to the infrarenal abdominal aorta have been reported. We retrospectively studied the postoperative outcomes of patients who were treated for aortoiliac occlusive disease via a retroperitoneal versus a transperitoneal surgical approach.From January 2005 through May 2009, 47 patients underwent surgery at our hospital for the correction of aortoiliac occlusive disease: 30 via a paramedian incision and retroperitoneal approach, and 17 via a midline sternotomy and transperitoneal approach. In the retroperitoneal group, the surgical procedures involved iliofemoral bypass in 15 patients, aortofemoral bypass in 12, aortoiliac bypass in 2, and aortobifemoral bypass in 1. All 17 patients in the transperitoneal group underwent aortobifemoral bypass. The preoperative characteristics and perioperative data of the patients were analyzed. We believe that the retroperitoneal aortoiliac approach with a paramedian incision may be considered as a surgical option for aortoiliac revascularization.