Resveratrol is a polyphenol that is safe to administer to dogs and has immunomodulating properties. Canine in vitro work indicated that resveratrol spared polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) phagocytosis but reduced the robustness of PMN oxidative burst and resulted in a pro-inflammatory leukocyte cytokine profile. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term effect of resveratrol on the healthy canine innate immune system in vivo. The hypothesis was that resveratrol would spare phagocytosis, depress the vigor of PMN oxidative burst, and result in a proinflammatory stimulated leukocyte cytokine profile in vivo. In an open-label study, whole blood was collected from 12 healthy, adult client-owned dogs on day 0 and 3. Six dogs received resveratrol, 200 mg kg-1, orally once daily for three days and six dogs served as controls with no supplement administered. Phagocytosis, oxidative burst and pathogen associated molecular pathogen stimulated leukocyte production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 were measured. Results between days 0 and 3 were compared using two way repeated measures analysis of variance and Fisher least significant difference method. A P -value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Resveratrol administration resulted in an increased number of Escherichia coli phagocytized by PMNs and decreased robustness of the oxidative burst reaction. Resveratrol also increased stimulated TNF and IL-6 production with no effect on IL-10. Resveratrol had differential effects on peripheral innate immune system function in dogs. Studies of resveratrol including tissue compartments and the adaptive immune system are indicated to determine if these immunologic effects may be beneficial in disease states. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.