The treatment of end-stage liver disease includes transplantation as a life-saving procedure although it has serious complications of hepatic artery thrombosis, liver dysfunction, or primary nonfunction, which frequently lead to the need for retransplantation. According to various reports, the incidence of retransplantation is around 10%. Given the critical organ shortage, the chance for a second transplant remains a controversial discussion in medical, ethical, and economic grounds because patient and graft survival rates after retransplantation are lower than those for primary transplantations. We retrospectively reviewed all of the urgent liver retransplants from October 2001 to February 2005 (52 months) by analyzing the number of retransplants, blood group, time between first and second liver transplantation, age, sex, and mortality. Data were obtained from the Transplantation System, State of Sao Paulo Health Secretariat. Among 1252 liver transplants performed during this period, 98 (7.82%) were urgent retransplantations. The primary procedure employed 955 (76.28%) deceased donors and 297 (23.72%) living donors. All 98 retransplants were performed using an organ from the pool of deceased donors. The retransplant rate was acceptable according to the literature, although we observed high rates of early mortality (<60 days), leading to a discussion of which patients had a better chance of survival and the best time to perform the second transplantation to use this scarce and precious resource in the best possible way.