The effects of experimentally elevated plasma thyroxine levels on the subsequent response of interrenals of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in vitro were examined. Animals were treated with thyroxine by immersion (200 micrograms/L) for 3 days, which resulted in physiological elevations in circulating thyroxine. In animals treated before the parr-smolt transformation was completed (early smolts), thyroxine had no effect on plasma cortisol levels but significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the interrenal to ACTH in vitro. In animals treated after the period of smoltification (postsmolts), plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher than those of controls; both experimental and control animals had plasma cortisol levels higher than normally observed at this stage of development. The response of the interrenals of thyroxine-treated postsmolts to ACTH in vitro was significantly lower than that of controls. Results from the experiments using early smolts are in agreement with studies in other vertebrates showing that thyroid hormones are involved in maintaining the normal functioning of corticosteroidogenic tissue and suggest that thyroid hormones may be involved in the activation of the interrenal that occurs during smoltification. The results obtained using postsmolts are more difficult to interpret because of the possibility that these animals were physiologically stressed by the treatment. Increased ACTH release in vivo resulting from stress may have led to a depression of interrenal sensitivity to ACTH in vitro and may have masked a refractoriness of the pituitary-interrenal axis to thyroxine.