This study was designed to assess the response of uterine epithelia of adult mice to a 4-week exposure of 50% methoxychlor (MXC) to ascertain whether significant changes were induced by 50% MXC that might compromise future implantation. Sexually mature virgin female mice were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg MXC via oral gavage for 5 consecutive days for 4 weeks. Controls received either sesame oil or 25 micrograms estradiol-17 beta (E-17 beta) also by gavage. At sacrifice, segments from each uterine horn were prepared for morphometric studies or for transmission electron microscopy. Results revealed a dose-dependent increase in the heights of uterine epithelial cells. Epithelial cell heights of the two groups treated with the highest doses of the pesticide were similar to that of the E-17 beta-treated group. Electron microscopy revealed increased vacuolization and swelling of mitochondria in cells of the 2.5 and 5.0 mg treated groups when compared to either of the control groups. In addition, there were effects on the number and size of microvilli in the uterine epithelial cells. The present study clearly demonstrates that a 4-week exposure of adult female mice to 50% MXC elicits significant estrogenic and toxic effects on the uterine epithelium.