Atmospheric pollution is increasingly responsible for chronic airway disease. Although outdoor pollution has decreased somewhat in recent years, indoor pollution has increased. Outdoor pollution results essentially from the combustion of coal and other fuels used for heating, industrial production and motor vehicles. The major sources of indoor pollution are heating and cooking devices. The main pollutants are suspended particulates, SO2, NO2 in indoor pollution and ozone which is linked to the photochemical effects. Transient increases in pollution cause transient decreases in pulmonary airflow. Chronic pollution seems to lead to an increase in the prevalence of lower and upper respiratory airway symptoms. In young children early exposure to pollution contributes to the development of chronic airways disease later in life. Asthmatics are at greater risk for pollution-related complications and several pollutants are known to increase bronchial reactivity. Further efforts are needed to reduce in pollution indoor and outdoor environments in particular with regard to tobacco smoke and especially for children.