This study, bound to the research line of “Practices and Formative Processes in Education” of the Post-Graduation Program in Education of FCT/UNESP, reports the results of a research which aims analyzing the comprehension that Mathematics teachers have about the Problem Solving as a teaching methodology, how they became aware of this methodological proposal and if there is a connection between their understanding about the Problem Solving and the pedagogical practice they state. The research, which was constituted of qualitative approach and exploratory nature, used as collecting tools a questionnaire and document analysis. The questionnaire was composed of open and closed questions which formed categories of analysis respectively to Teacher Education and Problem Solving, to the Understanding of Mathematics Teachers about Problem Solving and to the relation between the teaching understanding about Problem Solving and the pedagogical practice. 31 teachers with regular classes in 2017, in Elementary school and/or High School, from 26 schools in the city of Presidente Prudente answered to the questionnaire, being one teacher for school, and some schools accounting for more than one teacher. For data analysis, it was used the content analysis technique to the open questions in the questionnaire, and to analyze the closed questions it was taken into account the frequency of the answers. The document analysis was carried out in the prescribed documents that direct the teaching work at federal and state levels, in this case, the National Curricular Parameters (PCNs) and the São Paulo official State Curriculum and textbooks which supports the Curriculum (Teacher’s manual and Students textbook), which are used by the teacher who took part in the study. Based on this analysis, it was possible to conclude that in the textbooks, the Problem Solving is recognized, thus, it is claimed as a teaching methodology that ease the learning and development of mathematics contents and abilities, even though the curricular documents themselves admit the need of an educational policy that allude and conduct the continuous education of the teacher. The data and its respective analysis, allow to state that teachers understand the Problem Solving as a teaching methodology, once the problems are proposed in order to develop new mathematics concepts, stimulate students with investigative challenges, and as a result, build mathematics knowledge when solving a problem. However, teaching descriptions of pedagogical practice with Problem Solving as a teaching methodology of a mathematics concept, emphasizing that mathematics contents are formalized previously and the problems are used to finalize the topics studied, lead to claim that there are coordination displacements between teaching understanding about Problem Solving and its pedagogical practices.