Resistance of MMTV-NeuT/ATTAC mice to anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint therapy is associated with macrophage infiltration and Wnt pathway expression.
- Published Article
- "Impact Journals, LLC "
- Publication Date
- Dec 20, 2022
- DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.28330
- PMID: 36537914
One of the central challenges for cancer therapy is the identification of factors in the tumor microenvironment that increase tumor progression and immune tolerance. In breast cancer, fibrosis is a histopathologic criterion for invasive cancer and poor survival that results from inflammatory factors and remodeling of the extracellular matrix to produce an immune tolerant microenvironment. To determine whether tolerance is associated with the immune checkpoint, Programmed Cell Death 1 (PD-1), NeuT/ATTAC mice, a conditional model of mammary fibrosis that we recently developed, were administered a murine-specific anti-PD-1 mAb related to pembrolizumab, and drug response was monitored by tumor development, imaging mass cytometry, immunohistochemistry and tumor gene expression by RNAseq. Tumor progression in NeuT/ATTAC mice was unaffected by weekly injection of anti-PD-1 over four months. Insensitivity to anti-PD-1 was associated with several processes, including increased tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), fibroblast proliferation, an enhanced extracellular matrix and the Wnt signaling pathway, including increased expression of Fzd5, Wnt5a, Vimentin, Mmp3, Col2a1 and Tgfβ1. These results suggest potential therapeutic avenues that may enhance PD-1 immune checkpoint sensitivity, including the use of tumor microenvironment targeted agents and Wnt pathway inhibitors.