The accumulation of seed reserves is the result of distinct processes occurring in parallel in the main seed compartments of either maternal (seed coats) or zygotic (embryo, endosperm) origin. With the development of legume genomic resources, recent advances have been made toward understanding the metabolic control of seed filling and the regulatory network underlying reserve accumulation. Genetic variability for seed composition has been studied along with the environmental factors influencing reserve accumulation. Nutrient availability and sink strength were both found to be limiting for reserve accumulation. Genes and/or QTL controlling seed protein content and sulfur-amino acid levels have been identified. These new findings will support our attempts to engineer legume seed composition for added end user value.