Human microecology has been extensively investigated. Similar to an important physiologically functioning organ of the human body, the microecological system is one of the leading systems for environmental survival, health, genetics, disease, and aging. It is also an essential carrier for drug metabolism and microbial resistance. The occurrence, development, and deterioration of many infectious diseases are closely related to human microecological systems. This study mainly focuses on the changes in microbial groups associated with various infectious diseases to explore the relevant role of human microecology in the development of infectious diseases and its breakthrough implications in future accurate treatments of infectious diseases.