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Repurposing of FDA-approved drugs as dual-acting MAO-B and AChE inhibitors against Alzheimer's disease: An in silico and in vitro study.

  • Mateev, Emilio1
  • Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena2
  • Georgieva, Maya3
  • Zlatkov, Alexander3
  • 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria. Electronic address: [email protected]. , (Bulgaria)
  • 2 Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria. , (Bulgaria)
  • 3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria. , (Bulgaria)
Published Article
Journal of molecular graphics & modelling
Publication Date
Apr 14, 2023
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2023.108471
PMID: 37087882


An in silico consensus molecular docking approach and in vitro evaluations were adopted in the present study to explore a dataset of FDA-approved drugs as novel multitarget MAO-B/AChE agents in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). GOLD 5.3 and Glide were employed in the virtual assessments and consensus superimpositions of the obtained poses were applied to increase the reliability of the docking protocols. Furthermore, the top ranked molecules were subjected to binding free energy calculations using MM/GBSA, Induced fit docking (IFD) simulations, and a literature review. Consequently, the top four multitarget drugs were examined for their in vitro MAO-B and AChE inhibition effects. The consensus molecular docking identified Dolutegravir, Rebamipide, Loracarbef and Diflunisal as potential multitarget drugs. The biological data demonstrated that most of the docking scores were in good correlation with the in vitro experiments, however the theoretical simulations in the active site of MAO-B identified two false-positives - Rebamipide and Diflunisal. Dolutegravir and Loracarbef were accessed as active MAO-B inhibitors, while Dolutegravir, Rebamapide and Diflunisal as potential AChE inhibitors. The antiretroviral agent Dolutegravir exhibited the most potent multitarget activity - 41% inhibition of MAO-B (1 μM) and 68% inhibition of AChE (10 μM). Visualizations of the intermolecular interactions of Dolutegravir in the active sites of MAO-B and AChE revealed the formation of several stable hydrogen bonds. Overall, Dolutegravir was identified as a potential anti-AD drug, however further in vivo evaluations should be considered. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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