Determining the reliability and reproducibility of the hemodynamic response is important for the interpretation and understanding of the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. We describe a whole brain fMRI study designed to examine the reproducibility of the event-related hemodynamic response elicited by low-probability task-relevant target stimuli and low-probability task-irrelevant novel stimuli assessed 6 weeks apart. Reliable activation was observed during test and retest for processing of target stimuli in multiple frontal, temporal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical sites. Novel stimuli elicited reliable activation during test and retest in lateral frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and lateral temporal cortex, though there was evidence of habituation at some cortical sites. The patterns of activation associated with target detection and novelty processing are consistent with the intracranial distribution of the neural sources generated during similar tasks and replicate the results of previous event-related fMRI studies. The observed pattern of results supports the hypothesis that the hemodynamic response to target and novel stimuli is highly reproducible over the 6-week test-retest period.