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Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol

Authors
  • Taddei, Cristina1, 1
  • Zhou, Bin1
  • Bixby, Honor1
  • Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.1
  • Danaei, Goodarz2
  • Jackson, Rod T.3
  • Farzadfar, Farshad4
  • Sophiea, Marisa K.1
  • Di Cesare, Mariachiara5
  • Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia1
  • Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez1
  • Asghari, Golaleh6
  • Dhana, Klodian7
  • Gulayin, Pablo8
  • Kakarmath, Sujay9
  • Santero, Marilina8
  • Voortman, Trudy10
  • Riley, Leanne M.11
  • Cowan, Melanie J.11
  • Savin, Stefan11
  • And 868 more
  • 1 Imperial College London, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 2 Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA , Boston (United States)
  • 3 University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand , Auckland (New Zealand)
  • 4 Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , Tehran (Iran)
  • 5 Middlesex University, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 6 Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , Tehran (Iran)
  • 7 Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA , Chicago (United States)
  • 8 Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy, Buenos Aires, Argentina , Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  • 9 Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA , Boston (United States)
  • 10 Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands , Rotterdam (Netherlands)
  • 11 World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland , Geneva (Switzerland)
  • 12 Independent researcher, Los Angeles, CA, USA , Los Angeles (United States)
  • 13 University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA , Berkeley (United States)
  • 14 Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand , Nakhon Pathom (Thailand)
  • 15 Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic , Prague (Czechia)
  • 16 Thomayer Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic , Prague (Czechia)
  • 17 Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy , Rome (Italy)
  • 18 South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa , Cape Town (South Africa)
  • 19 Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea , Seoul (South Korea)
  • 20 Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland , Helsinki (Finland)
  • 21 ICMR–National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India , Hyderabad (India)
  • 22 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile , Santiago (Chile)
  • 23 ICMR–National Centre for Disease Informatics and Research, Bengaluru, India , Bengaluru (India)
  • 24 Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark , Copenhagen (Denmark)
  • 25 Capital Medical University Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Beijing, China , Beijing (China)
  • 26 Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark , Copenhagen (Denmark)
  • 27 Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, San José, Costa Rica , San José (Costa Rica)
  • 28 Qatar University, Doha, Qatar , Doha (Qatar)
  • 29 Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine , Birzeit (Palestinian Territories)
  • 30 Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico , Mexico City (Mexico)
  • 31 Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia , Adelaide (Australia)
  • 32 Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Taguig, The Philippines , Taguig (Philippines)
  • 33 Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran , Urmia (Iran)
  • 34 Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutricion, Mexico City, Mexico , Mexico City (Mexico)
  • 35 University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands , Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • 36 Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark , Gentofte (Denmark)
  • 37 Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia , Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
  • 38 Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran , Shahrekord (Iran)
  • 39 University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway , Oslo (Norway)
  • 40 University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany , Bremen (Germany)
  • 41 Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan , Amman (Jordan)
  • 42 Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait City, Kuwait , Kuwait City (Kuwait)
  • 43 Aldara Hospital and Medical Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia , Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
  • 44 King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia , Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
  • 45 Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg , Strassen (Luxembourg)
  • 46 World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt , Cairo (Egypt)
  • 47 Bombay Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mumbai, India , Mumbai (India)
  • 48 University of Lille, Lille, France , Lille (France)
  • 49 Lille University Hospital, Lille, France , Lille (France)
  • 50 Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal, Norway , Sogndal (Norway)
  • 51 Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway , Oslo (Norway)
  • 52 Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India , Chennai (India)
  • 53 Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran , Zahedan (Iran)
  • 54 National Institute of Public Health, Tunis, Tunisia , Tunis (Tunisia)
  • 55 Institute of Public Health of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal , Porto (Portugal)
  • 56 Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway , Oslo (Norway)
  • 57 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA , Amherst (United States)
  • 58 Abt Associates, Kathmandu, Nepal , Kathmandu (Nepal)
  • 59 University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland , Reykjavik (Iceland)
  • 60 Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil , Pelotas (Brazil)
  • 61 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland , Oulu (Finland)
  • 62 Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland , Oulu (Finland)
  • 63 Regional Authority of Public Health, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia , Banska Bystrica (Slovakia)
  • 64 University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal , Porto (Portugal)
  • 65 Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran , Tehran (Iran)
  • 66 University of Science and Technology, Sana’a, Yemen , Sana’a (Yemen)
  • 67 Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland , Lodz (Poland)
  • 68 Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland , Gdansk (Poland)
  • 69 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain , Madrid (Spain)
  • 70 University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy , Palermo (Italy)
  • 71 Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA , Washington (United States)
  • 72 Mohammed V University de Rabat, Rabat, Morocco , Rabat (Morocco)
  • 73 Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada , Halifax (Canada)
  • 74 Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan , Irbid (Jordan)
  • 75 Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan , Almaty (Kazakhstan)
  • 76 University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia , Sydney (Australia)
  • 77 Christian Medical College, Vellore, India , Vellore (India)
  • 78 University Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia , Tunis (Tunisia)
  • 79 Cafam University Foundation, Bogota, Colombia , Bogota (Colombia)
  • 80 Kazakh National Medical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan , Almaty (Kazakhstan)
  • 81 Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru , Lima (Peru)
  • 82 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania , Kaunas (Lithuania)
  • 83 University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
  • 84 Sunder Lal Jain Hospital, Delhi, India , Delhi (India)
  • 85 Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China , Shanghai (China)
  • 86 Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada , Ottawa (Canada)
  • 87 Ufa Eye Research Institute, Ufa, Russia , Ufa (Russia)
  • 88 Nepal Health Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal , Kathmandu (Nepal)
  • 89 University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark , Copenhagen (Denmark)
  • 90 University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden , Gothenburg (Sweden)
  • 91 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil , Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  • 92 National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands , Bilthoven (Netherlands)
  • 93 University of Turin, Turin, Italy , Turin (Italy)
  • 94 Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore , Singapore (Singapore)
  • 95 Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay , Montevideo (Uruguay)
  • 96 Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina , Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  • 97 IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy , Pozzilli (Italy)
  • 98 Toulouse University School of Medicine, Toulouse, France , Toulouse (France)
  • 99 University Hospital of Varese, Varese, Italy , Varese (Italy)
  • 100 University Hospital KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium , Leuven (Belgium)
  • 101 Ministry of Health, Victoria, Seychelles , Victoria (Seychelles)
  • 102 University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland , Lausanne (Switzerland)
  • 103 Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela , Caracas (Venezuela)
  • 104 Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany , Bielefeld (Germany)
  • 105 German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany , Heidelberg (Germany)
  • 106 University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark , Copenhagen (Denmark)
  • 107 Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany , Berlin (Germany)
  • 108 Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain , Tenerife (Spain)
  • 109 University of Malta, Msida, Malta , Msida (Malta)
  • 110 Istanbul University – Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey , Istanbul (Turkey)
  • 111 Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil , Juiz de Fora (Brazil)
  • 112 Gaetano Fucito Hospital, Mercato San Severino, Italy , Mercato San Severino (Italy)
  • 113 University of Porto, Porto, Portugal , Porto (Portugal)
  • 114 Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago, Spain , Santiago (Spain)
  • 115 Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Rome, Italy , Rome (Italy)
  • 116 Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Nicosia, Cyprus , Nicosia (Cyprus)
  • 117 Dr. A. Ramachandran’s Diabetes Hospital, Chennai, India , Chennai (India)
  • 118 University College London, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 119 Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan , Taipei (Taiwan)
  • 120 Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China , Beijing (China)
  • 121 Kailuan General Hospital, Tangshan, China , Tangshan (China)
  • 122 Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore , Singapore (Singapore)
  • 123 Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran , Ahvaz (Iran)
  • 124 The Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Ramat Gan, Israel , Ramat Gan (Israel)
  • 125 Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan , Taipei (Taiwan)
  • 126 Murcia Health Council, Murcia, Spain , Murcia (Spain)
  • 127 Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea , Seoul (South Korea)
  • 128 Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju-si, Republic of Korea , Cheongju-si (South Korea)
  • 129 Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland , Katowice (Poland)
  • 130 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium , Leuven (Belgium)
  • 131 Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada , Ottawa (Canada)
  • 132 Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium , Ghent (Belgium)
  • 133 Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria , Bregenz (Austria)
  • 134 Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Brazil , São Luís (Brazil)
  • 135 University of Southampton, Southampton, UK , Southampton (United Kingdom)
  • 136 Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France , Lille (France)
  • 137 CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain , Madrid (Spain)
  • 138 University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary , Debrecen (Hungary)
  • 139 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil , Porto Alegre (Brazil)
  • 140 National Council of Research, Reggio Calabria, Italy , Reggio Calabria (Italy)
  • 141 Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil , Florianópolis (Brazil)
  • 142 Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique , Maputo (Mozambique)
  • 143 Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland , Geneva (Switzerland)
  • 144 National Research Centre for Preventive Medicine, Moscow, Russia , Moscow (Russia)
  • 145 University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada , Montreal (Canada)
  • 146 French Public Health Agency, St Maurice, France , St Maurice (France)
  • 147 Mediterranea Cardiocentro, Naples, Italy , Naples (Italy)
  • 148 University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia , Zagreb (Croatia)
  • 149 Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran , Tehran (Iran)
  • 150 University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia , Brisbane (Australia)
  • 151 Universidad de Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador , Cuenca (Ecuador)
  • 152 Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany , Munich (Germany)
  • 153 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania , Bucharest (Romania)
  • 154 University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany , Düsseldorf (Germany)
  • 155 National Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland , Warsaw (Poland)
  • 156 Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA , Boston (United States)
  • 157 University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia , Riga (Latvia)
  • 158 Ministry of Health and Medical Services, Gizo, Solomon Islands , Gizo (Solomon Islands)
  • 159 Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran , Bandar Abbas (Iran)
  • 160 University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden , Skövde (Sweden)
  • 161 National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Tunis, Tunisia , Tunis (Tunisia)
  • 162 The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica , Kingston (Jamaica)
  • 163 Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques, Barcelona, Spain , Barcelona (Spain)
  • 164 University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa , Cape Town (South Africa)
  • 165 University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany , Duisburg (Germany)
  • 166 Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey , Trabzon (Turkey)
  • 167 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland , Helsinki (Finland)
  • 168 Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran , Mashhad (Iran)
  • 169 Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran , Rafsanjan (Iran)
  • 170 Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast, UK , Belfast (United Kingdom)
  • 171 University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland , Zurich (Switzerland)
  • 172 Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran , Tabriz (Iran)
  • 173 Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran , Fasa (Iran)
  • 174 Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran , Shiraz (Iran)
  • 175 Centro de Salud Villanueva Norte, Badajoz, Spain , Badajoz (Spain)
  • 176 Servicio Extremeño de Salud, Badajoz, Spain , Badajoz (Spain)
  • 177 Ministry of Health, Buenos Aires, Argentina , Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  • 178 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia , Kelantan (Malaysia)
  • 179 Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden , Umeå (Sweden)
  • 180 Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
  • 181 Hospital Universitario Son Espases, Palma, Spain , Palma (Spain)
  • 182 Kindai University, Osaka-Sayama, Japan , Osaka-Sayama (Japan)
  • 183 Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan , Kyoto (Japan)
  • 184 Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland , Warsaw (Poland)
  • 185 University of Catania, Catania, Italy , Catania (Italy)
  • 186 CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Alicante, Spain , Alicante (Spain)
  • 187 CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Barcelona, Spain , Barcelona (Spain)
  • 188 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil , Belo Horizonte (Brazil)
  • 189 Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands , Wageningen (Netherlands)
  • 190 B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal , Dharan (Nepal)
  • 191 University of Insubria, Varese, Italy , Varese (Italy)
  • 192 University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia , Adelaide (Australia)
  • 193 Lund University, Lund, Sweden , Lund (Sweden)
  • 194 McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada , Montreal (Canada)
  • 195 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain , Madrid (Spain)
  • 196 St Anne’s University Hospital, Brno, Czech Republic , Brno (Czechia)
  • 197 National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico , Cuernavaca (Mexico)
  • 198 Centro de Estudios en Diabetes A.C., Mexico City, Mexico , Mexico City (Mexico)
  • 199 Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic , Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)
  • 200 Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic , Prague (Czechia)
  • 201 Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland , Kraków (Poland)
  • 202 University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark , Odense (Denmark)
  • 203 National Center of Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing, China , Beijing (China)
  • 204 Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore , Singapore (Singapore)
  • 205 Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland , Kopavogur (Iceland)
  • 206 Universidad Icesi, Cali, Colombia , Cali (Colombia)
  • 207 Eternal Heart Care Centre and Research Institute, Jaipur, India , Jaipur (India)
  • 208 National Health Insurance Service, Wonju, Republic of Korea , Wonju (South Korea)
  • 209 Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Tehran, Iran , Tehran (Iran)
  • 210 The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados , Cave Hill (Barbados)
  • 211 Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran , Kermanshah (Iran)
  • 212 University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland , Kuopio (Finland)
  • 213 Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan , Fukuoka (Japan)
  • 214 University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway , Bergen (Norway)
  • 215 Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA , New Orleans (United States)
  • 216 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China , Beijing (China)
  • 217 Joep Lange Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands , Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • 218 Chronic Diseases Research Center, Tehran, Iran , Tehran (Iran)
  • 219 University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China , Hong Kong (China)
  • 220 The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China , Hong Kong (China)
  • 221 University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia , Perth (Australia)
  • 222 Kingston Health Sciences Centre, Kingston, Ontario, Canada , Kingston (Canada)
  • 223 Heart Institute, São Paulo, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
  • 224 Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia , Bucaramanga (Colombia)
  • 225 University Oran 1, Oran, Algeria , Oran (Algeria)
  • 226 Independent Public Health Specialist, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar , Nay Pyi Taw (Myanmar (Burma))
  • 227 Ministry of Health and Sports, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar , Nay Pyi Taw (Myanmar (Burma))
  • 228 CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Murcia, Spain , Murcia (Spain)
  • 229 VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands , Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • 230 International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France , Lyon (France)
  • 231 American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon , Beirut (Lebanon)
  • 232 Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt , Cairo (Egypt)
  • 233 University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain , Zaragoza (Spain)
  • 234 National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan , Tokyo (Japan)
  • 235 Medical University Varna, Varna, Bulgaria , Varna (Bulgaria)
  • 236 The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan , Tokyo (Japan)
  • 237 The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada , Toronto (Canada)
  • 238 Niigata University, Niigata, Japan , Niigata (Japan)
  • 239 Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel , Jerusalem (Israel)
  • 240 Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway , Trondheim (Norway)
  • 241 University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia , Melbourne (Australia)
  • 242 University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia , Zagreb (Croatia)
  • 243 University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia , Zagreb (Croatia)
  • 244 Heart Foundation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia , Melbourne (Australia)
  • 245 Guangzhou 12th Hospital, Guangzhou, China , Guangzhou (China)
  • 246 Universidad Eugenio Maria de Hostos, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic , Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)
  • 247 Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada , Burnaby (Canada)
  • 248 Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany , Heidelberg (Germany)
  • 249 World Health Organization Country Office, Delhi, India , Delhi (India)
  • 250 Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran , Rasht (Iran)
  • 251 University of Opole, Opole, Poland , Opole (Poland)
  • 252 University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece , Heraklion (Greece)
  • 253 Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia , Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
  • 254 Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Kathmandu, Nepal , Kathmandu (Nepal)
  • 255 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA , Baltimore (United States)
  • 256 National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai, India , Chennai (India)
  • 257 University of Münster, Münster, Germany , Münster (Germany)
  • 258 Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan, Iran , Isfahan (Iran)
  • 259 Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan , Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
  • 260 Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Dortmund, Germany , Dortmund (Germany)
  • 261 Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran , Sari (Iran)
  • 262 Hypertension Research Center, Isfahan, Iran , Isfahan (Iran)
  • 263 Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria , Innsbruck (Austria)
  • 264 Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania , Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)
  • 265 Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea , Seoul (South Korea)
  • 266 National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Republic of Korea , Goyang-si (South Korea)
  • 267 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA , Philadelphia (United States)
  • 268 University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria , Vienna (Austria)
  • 269 Oulu Deaconess Institute Foundation, Oulu, Finland , Oulu (Finland)
  • 270 Tartu University Clinics, Tartu, Estonia , Tartu (Estonia)
  • 271 Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Japan , Hirakata (Japan)
  • 272 Ministry of Health and Quality of Life, Port Louis, Mauritius , Port Louis (Mauritius)
  • 273 University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany , Ulm (Germany)
  • 274 University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands , Groningen (Netherlands)
  • 275 University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland , Jyväskylä (Finland)
  • 276 African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya , Nairobi (Kenya)
  • 277 Higher Institute of Health Sciences of Settat, Settat, Morocco , Settat (Morocco)
  • 278 Ministry of Health, Algiers, Algeria , Algiers (Algeria)
  • 279 Harokopio University, Athens, Greece , Athens (Greece)
  • 280 Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden , Gothenburg (Sweden)
  • 281 Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran, Iran , Tehran (Iran)
  • 282 University of Public Health, Yangon, Myanmar , Yangon (Myanmar (Burma))
  • 283 National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore , Singapore (Singapore)
  • 284 Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland , Tampere (Finland)
  • 285 Tampere University, Tampere, Finland , Tampere (Finland)
  • 286 University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa , Cape Town (South Africa)
  • 287 West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA , Morgantown (United States)
  • 288 Oswaldo Cruz Foundation Rene Rachou Research Institute, Belo Horizonte, Brazil , Belo Horizonte (Brazil)
  • 289 National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan , Taipei (Taiwan)
  • 290 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China , Shanghai (China)
  • 291 Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden , Uppsala (Sweden)
  • 292 National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia , Tallinn (Estonia)
  • 293 Universidad San Martín de Porres, Lima, Peru , Lima (Peru)
  • 294 Consejería de Sanidad Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid, Spain , Valladolid (Spain)
  • 295 Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden , Luleå (Sweden)
  • 296 Peking University, Beijing, China , Beijing (China)
  • 297 Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil , Ouro Preto (Brazil)
  • 298 University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal , Coimbra (Portugal)
  • 299 The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan , Tokyo (Japan)
  • 300 Institute of Neuroscience of the National Research Council, Padua, Italy , Padua (Italy)
  • 301 Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia , Melbourne (Australia)
  • 302 Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece , Athens (Greece)
  • 303 French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development, Montpellier, France , Montpellier (France)
  • 304 Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
  • 305 University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand , Dunedin (New Zealand)
  • 306 University of Padua, Padua, Italy , Padua (Italy)
  • 307 Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland , Lausanne (Switzerland)
  • 308 Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA , Atlanta (United States)
  • 309 Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, Brazil , Guarapuava (Brazil)
  • 310 UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway , Tromsø (Norway)
  • 311 Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa , Cape Town (South Africa)
  • 312 Brown University, Providence, RI, USA , Providence (United States)
  • 313 University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK , Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
  • 314 University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland , Dublin (Ireland)
  • 315 Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran , Yazd (Iran)
  • 316 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Lille, France , Lille (France)
  • 317 ICMR–National Institute of Medical Statistics, New Delhi, India , New Delhi (India)
  • 318 Lusófona University, Lisbon, Portugal , Lisbon (Portugal)
  • 319 Women’s Social and Health Studies Foundation, Trivandrum, India , Trivandrum (India)
  • 320 Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy , Florence (Italy)
  • 321 Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt , Cairo (Egypt)
  • 322 Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan, Iran , Isfahan (Iran)
  • 323 University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France , Strasbourg (France)
  • 324 Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France , Strasbourg (France)
  • 325 University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary , Pécs (Hungary)
  • 326 Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda , Kampala (Uganda)
  • 327 University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos, Cienfuegos, Cuba , Cienfuegos (Cuba)
  • 328 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Dublin, Dublin, Ireland , Dublin (Ireland)
  • 329 La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia , Melbourne (Australia)
  • 330 International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Warsaw, Poland , Warsaw (Poland)
  • 331 Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud, Panama City, Panama , Panama City (Panama)
  • 332 World Health Organization Country Office, Lilongwe, Malawi , Lilongwe (Malawi)
  • 333 University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy , Brescia (Italy)
  • 334 Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran , Bushehr (Iran)
  • 335 Ulm University, Ulm, Germany , Ulm (Germany)
  • 336 Kobe University, Kobe, Japan , Kobe (Japan)
  • 337 Suraj Eye Institute, Nagpur, India , Nagpur (India)
  • 338 University Medicine of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany , Greifswald (Germany)
  • 339 University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam , Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)
  • 340 Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam , Hanoi (Vietnam)
  • 341 Miami Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Miami, FL, USA , Miami (United States)
  • 342 University of Turku, Turku, Finland , Turku (Finland)
  • 343 Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network, Amman, Jordan , Amman (Jordan)
  • 344 University of Manchester, Manchester, UK , Manchester (United Kingdom)
  • 345 Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo, Japan , Tokyo (Japan)
  • 346 Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey , Istanbul (Turkey)
  • 347 Ministry of Health, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei , Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei)
  • 348 University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal , Funchal (Portugal)
  • 349 MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, Southampton, UK , Southampton (United Kingdom)
  • 350 University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia , Novi Sad (Serbia)
  • 351 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana , Kumasi (Ghana)
  • 352 Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada , Ottawa (Canada)
  • 353 IRCCS Ente Ospedaliero Specializzato in Gastroenterologia S. de Bellis, Bari, Italy , Bari (Italy)
  • 354 Jivandeep Hospital, Anand, India , Anand (India)
  • 355 South African Medical Research Council, Durban, South Africa , Durban (South Africa)
  • 356 Vietnam National Heart Institute, Hanoi, Vietnam , Hanoi (Vietnam)
  • 357 Clínica de Medicina Avanzada Dr. Abel González, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic , Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)
  • 358 Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology – BIPS, Bremen, Germany , Bremen (Germany)
  • 359 University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina , Sarajevo (Bosnia & Herzegovina)
  • 360 Cardiovascular Prevention Centre, Udine, Italy , Udine (Italy)
  • 361 Public Health Agency of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain , Barcelona (Spain)
  • 362 Observatorio de Salud Pública de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia , Bucaramanga (Colombia)
  • 363 Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran , Ardabil (Iran)
  • 364 Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran , Karaj (Iran)
  • 365 Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam , Hanoi (Vietnam)
  • 366 India Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India , Chennai (India)
  • 367 Institut Universitari d’Investigació en Atenció Primària Jordi Gol, Girona, Spain , Girona (Spain)
  • 368 Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia , Serdang (Malaysia)
  • 369 University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia , Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
  • 370 University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain , Valencia (Spain)
  • 371 University of the Philippines, Manila, The Philippines , Manila (Philippines)
  • 372 Minas Gerais State Secretariat for Health, Belo Horizonte, Brazil , Belo Horizonte (Brazil)
  • 373 CS S. Agustín Ibsalut, Palma, Spain , Palma (Spain)
  • 374 Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands , Amsterdam (Netherlands)
  • 375 Canarian Health Service, Tenerife, Spain , Tenerife (Spain)
  • 376 Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia , Bucaramanga (Colombia)
  • 377 Associazione Calabrese di Epatologia, Reggio Calabria, Italy , Reggio Calabria (Italy)
  • 378 Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden , Gothenburg (Sweden)
  • 379 Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France , Toulouse (France)
  • 380 Institute of Food Sciences of the National Research Council, Avellino, Italy , Avellino (Italy)
  • 381 Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research, New Delhi, India , New Delhi (India)
  • 382 Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia , Tunis (Tunisia)
  • 383 National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru , Lima (Peru)
  • 384 Catalan Department of Health, Barcelona, Spain , Barcelona (Spain)
  • 385 Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal , Lisbon (Portugal)
  • 386 South Karelia Social and Health Care District, Lappeenranta, Finland , Lappeenranta (Finland)
  • 387 Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan, Iran , Isfahan (Iran)
  • 388 National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan , Tokyo (Japan)
  • 389 University of São Paulo Clinics Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil , São Paulo (Brazil)
  • 390 Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina , Buenos Aires (Argentina)
  • 391 Center for Oral Health Services and Research Mid-Norway, Trondheim, Norway , Trondheim (Norway)
  • 392 King’s College London, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 393 National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan , Tokyo (Japan)
  • 394 Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea , Seoul (South Korea)
  • 395 Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland , Helsinki (Finland)
  • 396 St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia , Sydney (Australia)
  • 397 University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia , Sydney (Australia)
  • 398 Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden , Stockholm (Sweden)
  • 399 Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup, Denmark , Glostrup (Denmark)
  • 400 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 401 Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia , Semarang (Indonesia)
  • 402 University of Bari, Bari, Italy , Bari (Italy)
  • 403 University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark , Copenhagen (Denmark)
  • 404 Institut Régional de Santé Publique, Ouidah, Benin , Ouidah (Benin)
  • 405 University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France , Bordeaux (France)
  • 406 Izmir Katip Çelebi University, Izmir, Turkey , Izmir (Turkey)
  • 407 University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium , Leuven (Belgium)
  • 408 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Nancy, France , Nancy (France)
  • 409 Bonn University, Bonn, Germany , Bonn (Germany)
  • 410 Croatian Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia , Zagreb (Croatia)
  • 411 National Institute of Public Health–National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland , Warsaw (Poland)
  • 412 National Institute of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology, Havana, Cuba , Havana (Cuba)
  • 413 Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan , Taipei (Taiwan)
  • 414 National Statistic Office of Cabo Verde, Praia, Cabo Verde , Praia (Cape Verde)
  • 415 Ministry of Health, Amman, Jordan , Amman (Jordan)
  • 416 Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, India , Kasaragod (India)
  • 417 Health Service of Murcia, Murcia, Spain , Murcia (Spain)
  • 418 Institut d’Investigacio Sanitaria Illes Balears, Menorca, Spain , Menorca (Spain)
  • 419 Universidad Centro-Occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Venezuela , Barquisimeto (Venezuela)
  • 420 Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey , Izmir (Turkey)
  • 421 University of Tampere Tays Eye Center, Tampere, Finland , Tampere (Finland)
  • 422 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, USA , New York City (United States)
  • 423 Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands , Utrecht (Netherlands)
  • 424 Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam , Hanoi (Vietnam)
  • 425 University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands , Utrecht (Netherlands)
  • 426 Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia , Jakarta (Indonesia)
  • 427 Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de Alicante, Alicante, Spain , Alicante (Spain)
  • 428 North Karelian Center for Public Health, Joensuu, Finland , Joensuu (Finland)
  • 429 University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa , Johannesburg (South Africa)
  • 430 Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland , Cork (Ireland)
  • 431 Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia , Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
  • 432 Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada , Ottawa (Canada)
  • 433 Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing, China , Beijing (China)
  • 434 Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China , Urumqi (China)
  • 435 Capital Medical University, Beijing, China , Beijing (China)
  • 436 St George’s, University of London, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 437 Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria , Vienna (Austria)
  • 438 University of Oxford, Oxford, UK , Oxford (United Kingdom)
  • 439 Institute of Food and Nutrition Development of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing, China , Beijing (China)
  • 440 Children’s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China , Shanghai (China)
  • 441 Penang Medical College, Penang, Malaysia , Penang (Malaysia)
  • 442 University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus , Nicosia (Cyprus)
  • 443 Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , Tehran (Iran)
  • 444 Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China , Nanjing (China)
  • 445 Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China , Guangzhou (China)
  • 446 West Kazakhstan State Medical University, Aktobe, Kazakhstan , Aktobe (Kazakhstan)
  • 447 University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana , Accra (Ghana)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nature
Publisher
Springer Nature
Publication Date
Jun 03, 2020
Volume
582
Issue
7810
Pages
73–77
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2338-1
Source
Springer Nature
License
Green

Abstract

From 1980 to 2018, the levels of total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreased in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe.

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