The occurrence of cyanobacteria in freshwaters attracts much attention due to its associated health threats and ecological implications. Yet data on the composition of cyanobacteria taxa and toxigenicity in some regions is still scarce. Here, we explored the occurrence of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in three locations in Ukraine (reservoir for Kasperivtsi Hydrothermal Power Plant and outflowing River Seret, and cooling pond of Khmelnytsky Atomic Power Plant) in summer 2017. Cyanobacteria were a dominant fraction at all stations. A number of potent-toxin producers were identified including Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Aphanizomenon gracile, Dolichospermum flos-aquae, and Planktothrix agardhii. Screening for the presence of dissolved and particulate content of microcystins (-LR, -YR, and -RR), cylindrospermopsin, and anatoxin-a yielded negative results. The studied waters displayed no toxicity in human platelets in vitro. Further toxicological and ecological studies are necessary to evaluate the potential presence of cyanotoxin producers in Ukraine.