1. To study the relationship between indices of resting sympathetic traffic in nerves to skeletal muscles and the kidneys, simultaneous measurements were made of muscle sympathetic activity in the peroneal nerve and renal noradrenaline spillover in ten healthy normotensive males aged 18-69 years (mean 42 years). 2. Group mean levels (+/-S.D.) of muscle sympathetic activity and renal spillover were 22 +/- 17 bursts min-1 and 105 +/- 49 ng min-1, respectively. There were significant positive correlations between individual values of muscle sympathetic activity and renal noradrenaline spillover (r = 0.76, P < 0.01) and similarly between muscle sympathetic activity and renal venous plasma concentration of noradrenaline(r = 0.79, P < 0.007). 3. The results indicate that, although the sympathetic system has the capacity for selective activation of different subdivisions, in healthy human subjects resting traffic is similar or proportional in sympathetic nerves to skeletal muscles and the kidney.