This study presents a histomorphometric and biomechanical comparison of bone response to commercially pure titanium screws with 4 different types of surface topographies placed in the tibial metaphysis of 12 rabbits. Each rabbit had 4 implants placed, 2 in each tibia. The 4 surface topographies were a machined surface, a grit-blasted surface, a plasma-sprayed surface, and an acid-etched (Osseotite) surface. After a healing period of 5 weeks, histomorphometric and removal torque data revealed a significantly higher percentage of bone-to-implant contact and removal torque for acid-etched implants compared to machined, blasted, and plasma-sprayed implants. Within the limits of this short-term experimental study, the results indicated that micro-rough titanium surfaces obtained with acid-etching procedures achieved a 33% greater bone-to-implant contact over machined titanium surfaces with an abutment-type roughness and provided enhanced mechanical interlocking.