The development of civilization entails a growing demand for consumer goods. A side effect of the production and use of these materials is the production of solid waste and wastewater. Municipal and industrial wastewater usually contain a large amount of various organic compounds and are the main source of pollution of the aquatic environment with these substances. Therefore, the search for effective methods of wastewater and other polluted water treatment is an important element of caring for the natural environment. This Special Issue contains nine peer-review articles presenting research on the determination and removal of environmentally hazardous organic compounds from aqueous samples. The presented articles were categorized into three major fields: new approaches to the degradation of water pollutants, new methods of isolation and determination of the emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), and the occurrence of EOCs in the water environment. These articles present only selected issues from a very wide area, which is the removal of organic pollution in water environment, but can serve as important references for future studies.