Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are the most common autoimmune disorders, although they each have very different pathophysiology. In general, RA is considered to be a Th1-mediated disease, while SLE is a Th2-mediated disease. Thus, their overlapping, in so called "rhupus", is a rare condition. In Rembrandt van Rijn's (1606-1669) portrait of the middle-aged Maria Bockenolle, we have what may be the earliest depiction of a case of rhupus syndrome: the coexistence of a butterfly rash and digital deformities. This suggests the possible historical importance of an RA epidemic which took place in the early 17th century.