?The category of “self-employed” workers covers situations which are quite heterogeneous. The only thing these workers seem to have in common is a similar pattern of working time characterized by extensive working hours, flexitime, and a relative decisional autonomy. This article follows another common feature, their health status, which the self-employed declare to be better than that of salaried employees, even though on average the self-employed are a little older. This hypothesis is tested and validated from several angles in particular by excluding the influence of socio-professional categories which underlie the differences in employment status. The article also compares the consequences of illness on professional activity in the different professional situations considered. The results both confirm the relatively better health of the self-employed as well as suggest a unique mode of articulation between health and work, justifying the continuation of studies on the health of this particular group so as to better understand its characteristics and to complement our knowledge of the general mechanisms by which health and work constantly reflect on each other.?