Women who presented to a University psychiatric hospital were categorized into those with childbearing-related onset illness (CBROI, n = 168) and compared to those with non-childbearing-related onset illness (NCBROI, n = 1004). Women with CBROI were an average of five years younger. The two groups did not differ in membership across five major psychiatric diagnostic categories. However, women with CBROI were given the specific diagnosis adjustment disorder with depressed mood more frequently. Anxiety disorders were also common in women with CBROI. Most women with CBROI had the onset of illness during the postpartum period compared to during pregnancy or after pregnancy loss.