A lactate-fermenting strain of Selenomonas ruminantium (HD4) and a lactatenonfermenting strain (GA192) were examined with respect to the stereoisomers of lactate formed during glucose fermentation, the stereoisomers of lactate fermented by HD4, and the characteristics of the lactate dehydrogenases of the strains. GA192 formed L-lactate and HD4 formed L-lactate and small amounts of D-lactate from glucose. HD4 fermended L- but not D-lactate. Both strains contain nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-specific lactate dehydrogenases, and no NAD-independent lactate oxidation was detected. Continuous cultures of both strains grown with limiting glucose produced mainly propionate and acetate and little lactate at dilution rates less than 0.4/h, with shifts to increasing amounts of lactate and less acetate and propionate as the dilution rate was increased from 0.4/h to approximately 1/h.