SPRED1 protein coded by SPRED1 gene, a kind of tumors suppressor, belongs to Sprouty related protein family and mainly distributes in human brain. The activity of SPRED1 is mainly regulated by the tyrosine phosphorylation, which is stimulated by the hemopoietic factors. As an inhibitor of Ras-MAPK and RhoA cell signaling pathways, SPRED1 plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis of solid tumor. Recently, the inactivation of SPRED1 is reported to result in proliferation, survival time extension and induction angiogenesis of AML cells. There is a clue that SPRED1 is highly related to leukemia genesis. Recently our study proved that the expression level of SPRED1 decreased in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This review summarizes the recent progress of study on the relationship between SPRED1 and AML, so as to explore the pathogenesis of leukemia and provide a new approach for clinical diagnosis.