In this study the authors explore the relationship between intrinsic, personal extrinsic, and social extrinsic religiosity to breast and cervical cancer screening efficacy and behavior among Vietnamese women recruited from a Catholic Vietnamese church and a Buddhist temple in the Richmond, Virginia metropolitan area. The potential moderating effect of acculturation was of interest. Participants were 111 Vietnamese women who participated in a larger cancer screening intervention. Data collection began early fall of 2010 and ended in late spring 2011. High levels of acculturation were associated with increased self-efficacy for Pap tests and having received a Pap test. Acculturation moderated the relationships between religiosity and self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of social extrinsic religiosity were associated with increased efficacy for cancer screening among less acculturated women. Acculturation also moderated the relationship between religiosity and breast cancer screening. Specifically, for less acculturated women, increasing levels of intrinsic religiosity and personal extrinsic religiosity were associated with lower likelihood probability of Pap testing. For highly acculturated women, increasing levels of intrinsic religiosity and personal extrinsic religiosity were associated with higher likelihood probability of Pap testing. The authors' findings demonstrate the need for further investigation of the dynamic interplay of multi-level factors that influence cancer screening.