Administration of three successive doses of triiodothyronine (T3) (50 micrograms/100 g body wt), given on alternate days to thyroidectomized and euthyroid rats, stimulated oxygen consumption (QO2) and Na+ transport-dependent respiration (QO2 ) in the stripped jejunal mucosa, a preparation that consisted mostly of epithelial cells. The increase in QO2(t) accounted for 57% of the increment in QO2 in the transition from the hypothyroid to the euthyroid state and for 29% of the increment in the transition from the euthyroid to the hyperthyroid state. Administration of T3 to hypothyroid rats also increased the yield of epithelial cells. Injection of T3 into thyroidectomized and euthyroid rats increased the specific activity (at Vmax) of the (Na+ + K+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (NaK-ATPase) in jejunal crude membrane preparations. No significant change was recorded in the activity of Mg-ATPase in the same preparation. The ratio of QO2/NaK-ATPase and QO2(t)/NaK-ATPase in the various thyroid states remained constant, indicating proportionate increased in the respiratory and enzymatic indices. The effect of administration of T3 to thyroidectomized rats on the number of NaK-ATPase units (recovered in the crude membrane preparation) was estimated by: (a) Na+ + Mg++ + ATP-dependent binding of [3H]-ouabain to crude membrane fractions, and (b) the amount of the phosphorylated intermediate formed in the NaK-ATPase reaction from AT32P(gamma). Estimates were obtained of the maximal number of [3H]ouabain binding sites (Nm) and dissociation constants (Kd). Nm for [3H]ouabain and Nak-ATPase specific activity increased to about the same extent after T3 administration to thyroidectomized rats, with no change in the apparent Kd values. The amount of phosphorylated intermediate formed in jejunal crude membrane preparations also increased significantly. Thus, thyroid hormone administration may increase the number of active Na+pump sites in the plasma membrane. The apparent increase in the number of Na+ pump sites also correlated with the hormone dependent increases in QO2 and QO2(t).