This study aimed to analyze the demographic characteristics and health behaviors related to chronic diseases and to identify factors that may affect chronic diseases. Data from the Seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, and 3795 adults aged above 40 years were included. The following demographic variables were obtained: sex, age, education, income, type of health insurance, and private insurance. The following health behavior factors were also analyzed: medical checkup, drinking, smoking, exercise, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. Participants with lower socioeconomic status had a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. Meanwhile, those with private health insurance had a lower risk of developing chronic diseases. In addition, participants who underwent medical checkups and performed exercises had a lower risk, while those with obesity and hypercholesterolemia had a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. It is necessary to manage chronic diseases through comprehensive programs, rather than managing these diseases individually, and through community primary care institutions to improve health behaviors.