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Relationship between land surface temperature and urbanization in Vilnius district

  • Mirsanjari, Mir Mehrdad1
  • Mohammadyari, Fatemeh1
  • Visockiene, Jurate Suziedelyte2
  • Zarandian, Ardavan3
  • 1 Malayer University, Malayer, Iran , Malayer (Iran)
  • 2 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio av. 11, Vilnius, 10223, Lithuania , Vilnius (Lithuania)
  • 3 Research Center for Environment and Sustainable Development (RCESD), Department of Environment, Tehran, Iran , Tehran (Iran)
Published Article
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Publication Date
Jul 06, 2021
DOI: 10.1007/s10661-021-09209-5
Springer Nature
  • Article


The present study aims to evaluate the effect of vegetation on land surface temperature (LST) in different land uses and covers in Vilnius district in 1999 and 2019. To that end, in addition to mono-window and split-window algorithms that help estimate the LST, the variables digital elevation model (DEM), slope, heat load index (HLI), distances from the road and the water, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the normalized difference water index (NDWI) affecting the surface temperature were used. Furthermore, the random forest regression (RFR) method was applied to evaluate the effect of the mentioned variables on the LST. The performance model was also assessed by using the mean absolute (MAE), mean squared (MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the results, NDVI and NDWI indexes had the greatest impact on the temperature of Vilnius city, respectively. The study area images were categorized as built-up area, cropland, semi-forest land, dense forest land, water bodies, pastures, and green urban areas. It was found that the pastures in 1999 and the built-up class in 2019 received the highest temperature from the land surface and that the classes characterized by natural land cover such as forest land and agricultural and water bodies had a relatively low surface temperature. NDVI response curves in both 1999 and 2019 indicated that the higher the density of vegetation on the land surface, the lower the surface temperature. A lower rate of urbanization, a higher density of vegetation and consequently, a lower the temperature of the land surface were recorded for 1999 in comparison with 2019. Therefore, urbanization was demonstrated to play a significant role in changes in LULC and the increase in LST.

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