The reported high incidence of anti-HCV seropositivity in the Egyptian population seems surprising. Some suggest that schistosomiasis is the responsible factor, either by producing false positivity for HCV antibodies or by predisposing to actual HCV infection in some way. In an attempt to investigate this unclear relationship on a histological level, we performed a thorough semiquantitative morphological study of liver biopsy specimens from 44 anti-HCV-positive Egyptian patients with chronic liver disease. More than half of these patients (23) had serological evidence of schistosomiasis. The results have shown that all 44 liver biopsy specimens demonstrated the histopathological features known to be characteristic of chronic HCV hepatitis. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the schistosomal and nonschistosomal groups regarding the semiquantitative histological scores of these features. This study confirms the presence of definite HCV-induced hepatic pathology in all anti-HCV seropositive cases. More importantly, it shows the lack of enhancement of this pathology in the schistosomal patients.